Miller was one of many government and non-government representatives at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington.
Former Deputy Defense Secretary William Lynn said awareness of the threats has grown and that progress has been made.
“But the country has a limited window of opportunity to defend itself against an increasingly sophisticated array of threats,” he said. “Much remains to be done, and in my view we are not moving fast enough.”
Michelle Markoff, senior policy adviser in the State Department’s Office of the Coordinator for Cyber Issues, talked about how traditional rules of warfare don’t apply in cyberspace and said “classic deterrence policy fails in the absence of attribution.”
Markoff said there is no single deterrence strategy for cyberspace, but that there is a set of overlapping strategies that could be effective. Those strategies include better defense and resiliency, improved intelligence for attribution of attacks, and credible non-military responses such as law enforcement, diplomacy and economic sanctions.